The research is broadly based on two theoretical frameworks. One is the ICAP theory, which stands for Interactive, Constructive, Active and Passive student cognitive engagement. According to the ICAP theory, Constructive and Interactive modes of student engagement result in better learning outcomes than Active and Passive modes. The other theoretical framework is that of self-regulated learning (SRL). According to SRL theory, students can improve their learning and academic performance by acquiring the knowledge and strategies that enable them to become more skillful self-regulated learners – i.e., to manage their cognition, motivation, and emotions in the pursuit of their learning goals.